A Tribute to the of






One of my most prized pieces of memorabilia came from my lifelong best friend, the webmaster and it's quite a unique item.  It's an approval cover for Adventure Comics #374.  The accompanying certificate of authenticity explains just what it is: 

"An approval cover is a limited printing of the comic book cover that was given to a DC comics executive prior to the printing of the comic.  The executive would review and give final recommendations about color changes, spelling corrections, missing logos, incorrect issue #'s and more.  Once final approval was given, the comic could then go to press.  Prior to the 1980's, almost all approval covers were either thrown away or destroyed."

There is also a brief explanation of the "Jack Adler Collection," and it was one of my first exposures to Jack and the vital work he did for DC back in the day.   

In addition to the approval cover, my best friend sent me a complimentary copy of Adventure #374 (publication date November of 1968), so it seems more than appropriate to review it now. 

Credits for this issue are a bit unusual when compared to a lot of editions of Adventure in the Silver Age.  The cover, for example, was penciled by Curt Swan, but inked by Mike EspositoGaspar Saladino was credited for the lettering.  Jim Shooter authored and laid out the interior story, titled "Mission:  Diabolical!"  Pencils and inks, though, were by Win Mortimer, whom I always associate with Golden Age Batman artwork.  Lettering was by Milt Snappin and Mort Weisinger was the editor.

In the first few pages it's evident that virtually the entire Legion is on the ropes through a classic divide and conquer strategy.  Colossal Boy and Shrinking Violet are incapacitated by some unbreakable silk cocooning, rather than the harmless prop that has been placed on them during the filming of an adventure.  Lightning Lad, Shadow Lass, Cosmic Boy, Light Lass, Sun Boy and Star Boy are responding to a distress call and are ambushed, their powers neutralized by a strange ray.  Princess Projectra and Saturn Girl, waiting for their dates, Karate Kid and Lightning Lad, decide to go ahead and get onto an amusement park ride, but the ride proves to be another trap, causing them to battle one another and eventually black out before being collected by a suspicious group.

Over in Metropolis Harbor, Brainiac 5, Bouncing Boy, Duo Damsel and Invisible Kid are similarly captured.  So who does that leave?  Well, how about Superboy, Mon-El, Phantom Girl, Karate Kid and Chameleon Boy, who are out in space investigating a space pirate ship, but they end up trapped aboard.  Back at Legion headquarters, Ultra Boy, Supergirl, Dream Girl, Element Lad and Matter-Eater Lad arrive, wondering about the whereabouts of new members Timer Wolf and Chemical King.  By my count that makes mention of 25 Legionnaires.  Whew!   

The latest group is soon confronted by a visage of a malevolent being describing himself as a representative of Scorpius.  He tells them that they've captured their fellow Legionnaires and orders them outside where a teleportation beam takes them to an unknown locale described only as the home of Scorpius.  A projection of a hooded figure, identical to the one on the cover is shown and he explains that Scorpius, a collective gang, want the five Legion members to take on a rival gang, Taurus, who is trying to muscle in on their turf.  The five members of Taurus are Rogarth, Black Mace, Mystelor, Shagrek and Quanto.  If the Legionnaires do the bidding of Scorpius, their fellow members will be released.    Back in Metropolis, Taurus is striking and at that moment, the Legion members, wearing clothing over their costumes, attack.  Their foes, however, virtually match the Legion's powers and the battle goes to a virtual draw when the Legion of Substitute Heroes arrives, along with the Science Police.  The Legionnaires decide to retreat via teleporter, but not before some of their costumes have been exposed through the ravages of the fight.   

Regrouping back at Scorpius HQ, the Legion decides to try and learn who the mysterious leader of Taurus is and to try to remove the head from the snake.  That wraps up a pretty intense Part I.   

Part II is titled, "Mission:  Infiltrate Taurus!"  The Legionnaires plan to accomplish that mission via some first rate disguise tactics so that Ultra Boy can impersonate Black Mace.  The incognito members of the Legion then go to the casino where Dream Girl has foreseen the next appearance of the Taurus gang, but when the fisticuffs begin, Ultra Boy is having trouble cutting Black Mace from the group and ultimately fails.  Dream Girl, however, takes advantage of her overcoming Mystelor and replaces her instead.  She succeeds in sending tracer signals to her colleagues so that they can track them as they head for Earth and a meeting with their bankroller.  To the shock of the freshly arrived Legionnaires it is R. J. Brande, the financier of the Legion.  Since the billionaire has just rebuffed the Taurus gang, they spontaneously go on strike and the Legion members attack Brande and his other goons.  Once they overcome them they vow to turn them over to the Science Police Chief, Zoltorus, but then the plot twists and Brande is really Zoltorus, who had kidnapped the billionaire and used his money to create a crime empire.  The police have been summoned to gather up the criminals and the band of Legionnaires are suddenly teleported back to Scorpius headquarters where they are reunited with their fellow members, but the elation they feel is short-lived when a host of extra-dimensional guns, lethal to all are leveled at them.  Before anything untoward can happen, however, the Legion of Substitute heroes, consisting of Polar Boy, Fire Lad, Night Girl, Stone Boy, Chlorophyll Kid and Color Kid vault into action, putting the perps away and saving the day.

This wasn't a bad tale of the Legion, and I was flatly amazed at just how many characters were called into play in this full length adventure.  The pacing was good and kept you guessing, but I confess the art left me a little cold.  I guess when you grow accustomed to the work of a Curt Swan it's hard to see anyone else drawing one of my favorite superhero teams.  I'll rate this one a 6 on the 10-point scale.  Worth your time, but not among the top tier of Silver Age Legion tales in my opinion.   

Time now for the conclusion to the interview begun last time with the one and only Jack Adler:

Prof:  You're a man of many talents.  Perhaps you've got the soul of an engineer. 

JA:  I don't know what I've got, but I was happy with what I was doing.  Every day was fruitful and I loved it.   

Prof:  So you never actually "worked" a day in your life. 

JA:  That's correct. Do you know anything about cameras? 

Prof:  Just a little. 

JA:  I invented the stop-down lens.  And the mistake I made was that I went to show it to one of the top companies and they'd just come out with the Stop-o-matic diaphragm, and it was a copy of what I did.   

Prof:  Speaking of photography, you were also the innovator in using photos in creating comic book covers [like Action Comics #419 and Superman #289] as well, isn't that correct?

JA:  Absolutely. 

Prof:  What brought that to mind?   

JA:  Damned if I know.  I don't know how it came to me.  I usually went to bed with something on my mind, and about 3 o'clock in the morning I'd wake up and had the solution to what I wanted to do.   

Prof:  Marvelous. 

JA:  Don't use the word Marvel! 

Prof:  (Laughter.)  Fair enough, Jack. 

JA:  One of the things I had to promise when I left was that I wouldn't go to Marvel.  (Chuckle.) 

Prof:  They didn't want them to poach you, huh? 

JA:  That's right.   

Prof:  You were a DC or National exclusive.  That was something Carmine told me that I didn't realize was that the editors and the production people were the only ones actually on staff. 

JA:  Correct. 

Prof:  You must have felt you were fairly treated to stay there so long. 

JA:  It didn't matter.  I was doing something I liked.  I will say that I never got the kind of money I should have had, and one of the problems is that I never was able to get past Sol Harrison.  (Chuckle.)   

Prof:  Sure.  He ended up as publisher while you were ultimately Vice President in charge of production? 

JA:  Correct.        

Prof:  You obviously worked with pretty much all the editors and we already talked a little about Julie.  Did any others stick out in your mind? 

JA:  Jack Schiff was a gentleman.  Joe Kubert, of course.  In fact Joe came out to see me with Irwin Hasen about a year ago and he's planning to come out again. 

Prof:  Nice that he still remembers his friends.  Did you run across Bob Kane at all? 

JA:  (Chuckle.)  Which one? 

Prof:  (Mutual laughter.)  That says it all right there, Jack. 

JA:  Bob Kane was lucky.  His father was an accountant and a close friend of Jack Liebowitz's, and he was the one who set Bob up with a contract, and Jack Liebowitz was nice enough to set up that contract and it made a fortune for him, whoever he was.  (Chuckle.)  Also, I have photographs of most of the people, the artists who freelanced for DC back in the day.  I'm an excellent photographer.  I use photography instead of drawing.  I replaced my drawing capability by doing photography, and my photographs have everybody.   

Prof: What a great thing to look back on.  How long did you and Sol end up working together? 

JA:  Until he left. 

Prof:  Okay, so literally decades. 

JA:  Yeah.  As a matter of fact, he came to visit me and I asked him why he retired and he said, "Because I didn't want to die on the job."  He was having a problem with Jenette [Kahn] and I got involved in it, which was stupid of me; it cost me…I don't know if I should go into it.   

Prof:  Whatever you feel comfortable with. 

JA:  You might ask me again. 

Prof: Okay.  What memories do you have of Ira Schnapp? 

JA:  Ira Schnapp was a gentleman, and I have a very funny experience about him.  I was up in Cape Cod in a famous restaurant up there and I saw a picture on the wall which had a drawing of Ira Schnapp; a watercolor of Ira Schnapp that I had done.  I don't know how it got there and I never found out.  How a portrait of Ira Schnapp that I'd done got there, I'll never know.  I used to do sketches of the people I worked with.  I used to get by on 4 hours of sleep a night.  I worked full time and did freelance work for agencies around the country doing color separation work.  I did many magazines.  I did the first copy of Ms. Magazine, the cover, for example.  I did a lot of that.  I did a lot of work with Murphy Anderson.  He can tell you a lot of things about me.  He's the best friend I've got, I think.  The nicest man I've ever met.  He asked me to give him space in the department because he didn't want to work at home.  So I gave him a desk and he came in every morning and worked and if he took a pencil…he stayed past the time I was there, in the morning he'd bring one in.  He's replace it, and you know, there were pencils all over the place.  He didn't have to do that.   

Prof:  Just a man of the highest integrity. 

JA:  Absolutely!  I can't say enough about him.   

Note:  I gave Murph a call and asked him what he remembered of working with Jack and he graciously shared the following: 

Murphy Anderson:  We worked on a lot of freelance projects together.

Prof: Was anything particularly memorable to you? 

MA:  Mostly licensing projects.  People would get a license to do various things from DC and it would be for any number of different projects.  They'd get permission to use the art and so forth and Jack would help me with the coloring and that kind of thing.  I remember working on toys, too and he helped me a lot.  Advertising things, too.

Prof:  He did say you had your own space in the production department where you liked to work. 

MA:  He and Sol Harrison, who was his boss most of the time, had things arranged there in the shop.   

Prof:  Right, he mentioned that he and Sol moved up the ranks together.

MA:  They went way back and were also involved with A. L. Strauss who was the father of another good friend of mine, Andy Strauss.  I never knew the older Strauss, but he was a color separator and up until then they'd never done much work in comics, but Sol and Jack, with their interest in comics, they got to work on a lot of comic projects.  They were very capable.  They were doing commercial work in advertising and that sort of thing.

Prof:  He did tell one kind of amusing story about you.  He said anytime you were in there doing any kind of work if you happened to pick up a pencil you made absolutely sure that it got returned.  He said despite there being pencils everywhere you wanted to make certain you didn't take anything that didn't belong to you. 

MA:  That's kind of true, I guess.  (Chuckle.)  That was a bit of a problem when you had a guy like Milt Snappin who was taking care of things and was also an artist who did a lot of lettering, but he could only squeeze that kind of work in on his lunch hour, so lunch time would come and Milt would have some kind of freelance project, but he had no tools, so he'd wander around while other guys were away from their desks and borrow things so that he could use them.  He tried to return them all most of the time, but sometimes he didn't.  (Chuckle.)  He just left them where he finished the job.  So that created a bit of consternation.  (Chuckle.)  A lot of shouting and hollering for awhile.   

Prof:  Did you and Jack socialize much at all? 

MA:  Not a whole lot, but we did some.  We knew his wife and his daughter.  His daughter would come up fairly often to the office and so I got to know her quite well.  Dorothy was a very nice lady and Jack would invite us over and she'd tolerate us.  (Chuckle.)  We always had a good time.  Dorothy was one of a kind.  Never very boisterous or anything and she obviously felt a great deal of affection for her husband.   

Prof:  Always so nice to hear.  He had fond memories of working with you on the P.S. magazine as well. 

MA:  Right.  He colored and did some of the separations on it.  Separations only on the four color section of it.  I introduced the Army to a type of color separation they did at DC.  Jack and Sol were the guys who invented the process and they did it for Andy Strauss.  In fact I discovered that Andy Strauss was close by to me and could help me, so when I got the P.S. contract he did all the photography and the engraving for us, but someone had to do the color separations and that brought Sol and Jack back into it.  Well, not Sol so much, but Jack mostly and they were both delighted because they had a good relationship with Andy's father.

Prof:  It sounds almost like a homecoming. 

MA:  It was.  They (Emil Strauss) were doing the engravings of newspaper comics as I think about it along with advertising.  One of the things they worked on was Prince Valiant.  They did the plates and color separations for that.  Jack and Sol were instrumental in introducing the unique separation technique they'd arrived at.  They created a process that allowed them to do it without such an elaborate process.  So they pioneered there and then later were hired by DC and they started doing their covers like that and adapted the process they'd been using on newspaper strips.

Prof:  Magnificent.  I also asked Jack about his innovations with the wash tones.

MA:  That's right.  They did it as a wash and shot it and matched it up with the line art and added tone to color.  They understood color so well that they could make a mix of 3 or 4 colors if they had to in order to achieve a color and have it work out to be a brown or some other color that normally was not used much in comics.  DC's covers were unique in that respect.  The other publishers didn't have anything quite like it.  While the folks up at Chemical knew how it was done, they had no one with the expertise to do it really.  They didn't have the ability that a trained artist did to take care of the drawing as well as the color separation.  Of course I'm just giving you a layman's view of what they were doing.  It was very involved and very technical and they did it extremely well.

Prof:  I have no doubt and unfortunately a layman's viewpoint is probably about all I could understand anyway.  (Laughter.)

MA:  They would often take black and white photos and color them so that they looked like color photography.

Prof:  You worked with him on the P.S. magazine, too, didn't you? 

JA:  Correct.  I did all the separations.  I did it every month.  I taught Murphy how to do the separations and he set up a system for himself.  I turned it over to him.  I began to have a problem with one eye.  Macular degeneration.  I have 20-20 in the other eye. 

Prof:  That would make depth perception difficult. 

JA:  Yeah, the image is displaced and the center is blacked out.  It's weird.

Prof:  Someone was telling me that toward the end Ross Andru was having vision troubles that made it difficult for him to do some of his penciling. 

JA:  Nice guy, Ross. 

Prof:  I've heard good things about him.  Did you know Mike Sekowsky? 

JA:  Oh, Mike was funny.  Mike used to do little sketches, that I saved, fortunately, that are light.  He had a good sense of humor.  I'll give you an idea of the kind of thing he'd do.  He'd draw a sundial and write "Tick, tock, tick, tock" on it.  He did one thing where, "You don't have to be Jewish to enjoy Levy's Rye Bread," and he had some sort of insect on it.  He was always very funny.  Very cute drawings.  A lot of stuff I didn't save.  As a matter of fact, I have a number of awards, and I'm hunting like crazy for them.  Not for me.  Of course I never cared about them, but I have two great-grandchildren now and I was looking for them.  I'm trying to find everything I can.  I'm finding some treasures, and I look at the stuff that I did and I marvel about how good an artist I was.  I really marvel at it.  I'm impressed with me.  (Mutual laughter.)   

Prof:  Speaking of saving treasures, I was going to mention to you that I'm lucky enough to be the beneficiary of one of your efforts.  When the so-called Jack Adler Collection was being sold on eBay, I ended up with one of the approval covers that you rescued. 

JA:  Which one? 

Prof:  Adventure Comics #374.   

Note:  This approval cover and many other pieces of the "Jack Adler Collection" were being sold on eBay in the not too distant past and the following narrative was included in the auctions:

Jack Adler was DC Comics* premiere colorist from the early *50*s through the mid *80*s, and was head of the art department for much of his tenure. He graduated from high school at the age of fifteen, and quickly got a degree in fine art.   He became proficient at sculpting, penciling, inking, painting, and photography. He pioneered the washtone/graytone effect which became so popular on the DC "Big Five" war titles. Plus, he inked many *50*s, *60*s, and *70*s comic covers as well. Moreover, he also developed the "3-D" process used on the Batman 3-D and Superman 3-D comics in 1953; --so we*re talking about a major contributor to DC history!  During the summer of 2004, the living legend himself, Jack Adler, (thought by some to have passed away years prior), at the urgings of his kind family, made his very first public appearance, at the San Diego Comic-Con.  He was honored Thursday afternoon at the ever-popular convention with the Inkpot Award For Excellence for Outstanding Achievement In Comic Art, and a rousing standing ovation from the many onlookers at the panel of Golden-Age and Silver-Age Greats, hosted by Mark Evanier (of course!)  Besides just Mr. Adler, other noteworthy members on the entertaining and informative panel were Tom Gill, Sid Jacobson, Gene Colan, Frank Springer, Harry Harrison, and Frank Bolle.  On Friday at the Comic Con, there was a one-on-one panel, with just Mark Evanier and Jack Adler, titled "Spotlight On Jack Adler", and many questions were answered for the large crowd of audience member, who were kept entertained by the charismatic and respected living legend.  It is amazing how many great names were hired on by him!  I also found out that he invented the 3-D image technology popularly used in Viewmasters, but was unable to get the deserved patent, as the film itself had been patented, (but not in a similar 3D format, so he got burned, as viewmaster was able to capitalize freely!)  Plus, the method that made integrating photo cover and line-drawn cover art easily into a single cover image was also pioneered by this influential innovator.  (The technology was supposed to be kept a secret, but was leaked immediately by a DC exec!)   Julius Schwartz had told him "don*t tell me about it, just do it", and when it worked, it worked, and was immediately utilized, as the articulate and charming Adler related.  As an accomplished photographer, he created covers using photographs he had taken of his own grandchildren, producing his own copies of Shazam #2 and #6, which were displayed on an overhead projector to the glee of many enthralled listeners!  The picture of Captain Marvel, sitting reading to the innocent youths, was actually of Jack Adler reading to his grandkids.  (These same grandkids were present at the panel, and turned out to be pleasant, gracious, and kind adults!)  Moreover, he highly touted the art skills of good friends Neal Adams and Joe Kubert, (relating entertaining stories, of course!)  He helped Kubert set up his now legendary School Of Comic Book Art. Once the school was set up, he was supposed to head the school, but had to back out, as he couldn*t bring himself to move to New Jersey!   You could write a book on the contributions Mr. Adler has made to the medium many of us know and love.

Back in the "good ole days", DC normally burned or discarded such production art once the comic went to print.  Mr. Adler painfully remembers himself and fellow DC artist Jerry Serpi cutting up thousands of pages of original comic line art and production art.  He said it broke his heart to destroy all that beautiful artwork; but back then, nobody foresaw the future value of such exclusive pieces of comic-book history!  Fortunately, during the period of 1967 to 1974, this award-winning artist pulled aside many prime examples, representing each step of the comic-making process! Nevertheless, there*s an extremely small amount of these that were saved, considering the volume that was produced in those days. It is estimated that out of 840,000 pieces created for the production process over that time period, only about 3,700 or so survived, thanks to Jack Adler; ~A miniscule percentage of less than one half of one percent!

This is the actual Approval Cover, (blank on the reverse, unlike cover proofs), for this comic. The editorial and creative staff reviewed it and approved it for use, to make sure there were no errors or needed improvements, before the actual book hit the press. 

Provenance:  Back in the late eighties, in Texas, Mr. Adler and his grandson sold his entire collection, comprised of the DC Archives of cover production art, in one fell swoop. Then, years later, it changed hands again, with the vast bulk of the load still untouched... Eventually, after lengthy negotiations, a longtime friend and I were able to acquire the whole load, except for the horror, from the Southern California art collector who possessed this landmark find since 1997. The horror genre took me an additional three and a half years of wrangling, but now they too can find their way into the hands of the true fans, who can preserve and cherish them the right way. For additional information regarding this popular pedigree, check out the lengthy color article on the Adler Collection in the September 2001 issue of Comic Book Marketplace #85 (which is still available in another of our auctions for cover-price, but I digress!) A signed & embossed cardstock Certificate of Authenticity is included, forever guaranteeing the provenance of each piece from this major historic discovery. Approval Covers are brilliant and glossy, (obviously very well preserved), and they are blank on the reverse side, and are slightly larger than comic size; since they were part of the editorial process they can include tack-holes, indentations from a paper clip, staple-holes, chips, pencil notations, tape, and/or edge wear. (This one has some general wear and edge creases, but no tape, tears, or holes.) I hope that the weak, shadowy, low-resolution scan will still convey that this is a great looking showpiece, which would be especially impressive framed. Regrettably, our scanner makes the item look subdued and the background colors appear wavy --when all colors are actually rich and uniform, and extremely bold throughout! -->

Jack asked me to clarify some things about the above.  First and foremost, he told me that he never took anything from the DC offices, that in fact they mailed him about 30 cases of material and that 1 of those cases was sold by his grandson to someone in Texas and that it somehow became the fabled "Jack Adler collection."  Also, for the record, the Shazam! #6 cover referred to above contained not Jack, but his son-in-law with Jack's grandchildren.

Now, back to the interview:  

JA:  Ah.  I'm looking for a cover that I did for Green Lantern.  I think it's number 8.  It was the wash cover, and it was stolen by one of my assistants and given to one of the artists and I've not been able to find it and I could get a fortune for it.  If you come across it, I'd appreciate hearing about it.  I'm looking for it.  It's the one with the prehistoric monster.  Gil Kane did the pencils. 

Prof:  Ah, Gil.  Now there was an artist.   

JA:  (Laughter.)  I have a very funny story to tell you about him.  I used to take photographs and on Wednesday night I would have a model come in at the Art Student's League, and we would invite the writers and the artists to come in and they'd sketch.  It was a coffee klatch kind of thing.  And I took pictures of the artists, not the models, and Gil Kane had one of the ugliest noses you ever saw, and when I made the prints, I printed it, but I never showed it to him, because he would have been embarrassed by it.  He met a girl who said she'd marry him on three conditions:  That he fixed his teeth, because they were baby teeth; that he'd change his name, which he did, from Eli Katz; and that he'd fix his nose.   

Prof:  She didn't ask for much… 

JA:  He did all three.  Of course he screwed around and married someone else.  Anyway, when he had it done, Julie Schwartz came in and said, "Gil is coming in with his new nose.  Can we play a gag on him?"  So I thought for a minute and I said, "Yes.  I have a picture of him," and I told him what I wanted to do.  So he said, "Fine."  Now the place had windows in all the offices, so everyone could see into every office.  I said, "When Gil Kane comes in, I know he's going to ask me to take a photograph."  That's exactly what happened.  He came in and incidentally the guy did a gorgeous job on him, he was now a good looking guy.  He was six foot two and handsome.  And he came in and as soon as he saw my camera he said, "What are you doing?"  I said, "I'm taking pictures of some of the people.  I do it regularly."  He said, "Will you take a picture of me?"  I said, "Yes."  When he came in to the sketch class, I set him up in the same position as that earlier picture.  He said, "When are you getting it back?"  I said, "It's going out and will be back by the end of the day."  I get a call that the photographs are in.  I set up about a hundred photographs with his at the bottom, and I went to Julie and said, "Julie, I have all the photographs," and he said, "Come in."  Gil Kane is on my back waiting to look at the picture.  We're going through each one slowly, and Gil is dying.  Finally we get to that and he looks at it and I hear him say, "Wha?  Wha?"  He turned white as a sheet and didn't speak to me for two years!  I made up my mind then that I'd never play a stunt like that on anyone again, and I never have.  He used to talk to me all the time about the movie stars and how they moved.  He was really a great artist. 

Prof:  I fully agree.  When they had the so-called DC explosion with the introduction of all the new titles how did that affect you? 

JA:  It didn't affect me at all.  I just had more work.  I had a good crew and I was able to get the stuff out.  When I was originally made production manager, at that point they were paying a fortune for shipping the plates because every one of them was late.  They told me that my job would be to try to correct it, because it cost a fortune.  So what I did was that I worked out a system.  What I decided was to do it without telling anybody and what I did was when the schedule was made out I added one day each month.  Nobody caught on except Julie Schwartz who came in and said, "Adler, what are you up to?"  He was the only one who understood what I was doing.  Eventually I got it down to where everything was shipped on time.   

Prof:  When they did the oversized issues, what sort of challenges did that present? 

JA:  I had to make copies from the old books and I figured out a system for bringing out the image.  They asked me if there was any way I could copy the stuff that was in the books and I gave them two systems.  One was a very simple system that didn't get very good copies, but needed a lot of clean up work and the other one was sophisticated, but slow and expensive.  And of course they chose the cheaper one, and that was the way it went and they made the larger books. 

Prof:  Sounds like quite a challenge. 

JA:  That's what I lived on.  I wasn't aware of the things I'd accomplished until the convention when I was given an award.   

Prof:  San Diego. 

JA:  In San Diego.  When I ended the interview on the question "How do you feel about it?" I said, "I'm proud of all I did."  It was the first time I realized all that I had done.  You know when you're doing your work, it's simply your job, and I just never thought about it. [Note: Here's video of Jack at San Diego.]  

Prof:  It adds up. 

JA:  When I look back now, it was quite a career.  I hate to sound like I'm bragging. 

Prof:  Well, as they say, if you did it, it's not bragging.  

JA:  Correct.  Correct. 

Prof:  Stan Goldberg and Mike Esposito told me that the paper and ink quality at Marvel was so poor that they had to make the ink lines extra thick.  Did you run into any of that? 

JA:  No.  I checked every page and our stuff was fine.  And as far as the color was concerned, I had total control.  I was responsible for the change in color at DC.  I was never interested in anything that Marvel did.  I never looked at their stuff, their coloring, nothing.  I was only interested in what I could do for my company. 

Prof:  So you were competing with yourself. 

JA:  Correct.   

Prof:  Do you remember when they drew you and the other members of the production department in the Inferior Five comic book? 

JA:  I was in a number of comics.  I was kind of a foil for them.  

Prof:  Okay.  That was the only depiction I'd seen of you. 

JA:  I don't remember that one. 

Prof:  I'll send you a scan of the page. 

JA:  Okay, good. 

Prof:  You said you taught Neal Adams quite a bit. 

JA:  Adams sat with me and when he caught on to what I was doing, he came in and sat with me and asked questions of everything I was doing.  He wanted to know all about color and color production.  The only problem I have with Neal Adams is when they do an interview with him about me, he talks about Neal Adams.  He is great, though.  A great artist.  I think there's only one artist who was better and that was Alex Toth.  He was a gem, and one of the things I'm proud of is that Alex Toth liked my coloring and asked me to color a story of his, which I did.  He needed no color really.  The title of the story was, "A Dirty Job," and it had to do with the crucifixion, and he's the only one who ever showed the crucifixion without the gore.  He showed it from the back.  And he just showed the crown of thorns with the light emanating from it.  He was great.  The thing that was great about him was not what he drew, but what he left out.  It wasn't just the clean lines.  You look at his drawings, and you look at a girl's face and there's nothing on there.  Two little dots for the nose, the eyes and the mouth and it was a gorgeous girl, and there was nothing else.  No shading of any kind.  Nothing.  It was just a beautiful girl.  He drew a figure like that.  Nothing in there.  What he left out, you saw.  You were able to discern what was there.  He was also the only one who didn't care about money.  He gave his stuff away.  I wish he had given some to me.  I could have asked him for anything, and I just didn't.  To me he was amazing, just amazing.   

Prof:  You're obviously a fan, as is Irwin Hasen.  He really liked Alex. 

JA:  If you speak to Irwin Hasen, give him my best. 

Prof:  I'll be happy to.  When did you retire, Jack? 

JA:  About 25 years ago. 

Prof:  So you've had time to reflect on your career.  I was going to mention that Todd Klein has a webpage and he recently posted what he described as one of his very few treasured pieces of original artwork, which is the color guide to the debut of Swamp Thing in the House of Secrets #92 that he received from you and your signature is on it. 

Note:  Speaking of Todd Klein and his website, I noticed that Jack's assistant, Anthony Tollin had commented at length about Todd's article on coloring and shared some fairly technical information on the topic which includes some comments about his old mentor: 

Anthony Tollin: I really enjoyed your memories of ancient comic book coloring, Todd …

AT: … but did Jack Adler actually permit you to color with a Winsor-Newton series 7 #3 brush. He routinely instructed colorists to work with a Winsor-Newton series 7 #7 brush, which laid down color at a much faster rate. And he made sure we used the bigger brushes from our first assignments. The series 7 #7 brushes still came to a super-fine point for small detail work, so they could even be used for full-process color assignments where our coloring was actually scanned, but they really did speed things up for conventional comic book assignments.

AT: I certainly enjoyed the better offset (as opposed to letterpress) printing and the better paper stocks, but found the higher-grade Baxter paper stock could have an overly-bright "Day-Glo" quality, so on books like THE SHADOW STRIKES I routinely traded in the 100% yellow, magenta and cyan tones for 10% and 24% K (for key plate, or black) tones. On THE SHADOW STRIKES, I desired a slightly muted, somewhat retro rotogravure quality that I felt better evoked the 1930s.

AT: I found dropping the 100% really worked on the brighter Baxter paper, which Adrienne Roy and I eventually also used when coding THE NEW TEEN TITANS Baxter series.

AT: Another thing worth mentioning is that Marvel colorists had one less color tone available during the Silver Age, while DC colorists lacked two. 1950s and 1960s Marvel books didn't utilize the 50% yellow, while DC colorists weren't permitted to use the 25% or 50% yellow tones. This severely limited the color palette available. (I suggest your readers scroll back up to your color charts and imagine dropping any lines of color that included the 25%, 50% or 75% yellow tones, coded Y2, Y3 & Y4.) Neal Adams successfully lobbied to use all three yellow values when he started coloring some of his own stories, which is why we finally saw Batman's costume colored a dark gray (25%Y, 25%R, 50%B) rather than the earlier light purple (25%R, 25%B).

AT: When I colored three issues of Alan Moore & Steve Bissette's 1963 for Image, I purposely restricted myself to the same colors (minus the 50% yellow) that Marvel colorists had available during the 1960s. And I did without either the 25% or 50% yellow for one of my last DC jobs, a retro story drawn in the 1950s style. (It was the first time I ever received royalties for my coloring, and ironically I was paid those royalties to make the stories look the way they had when Marvel colorists were earning something like $2 per page.) It's really amazing what DC colorists like Jack Adler were able to accomplish during the Silver Age with a color palette that only utilized a 100% yellow.

AT: One more quick comment: Sometime around 1970, Chemical Color in Bridgeport Connecticut purchased new cameras which unfortunately used the same dot patterns for both the magenta/red and cyan/blue dot patterns. This was done over strong objections from DC's resident color genius Jack Adler.Previous to this, the red and blue dot patterns were at different angles, which resulted in a consistent amount of white paper showing through. One might assume that the darkness of a printed color is directly representative of the size of the dot (25%, 50% or 70%) but it's really dependent on how much white shows through between the dots. Once the red and blue plates were being printed at the same angle, there was no control over this. For example, a 50% blue dot could print directly on top of a 50% red dot (allowing a lot of white to show through) or the red dots could print between the blue dot patterns (resulting in less white and a much darker value). The levels of lightness and darkness became luck of the draw (depending on how the dot patterns aligned in printing) and were beyond the control of 1970s and 1980s colorists whose work was separated by Chemical Color. 

JA:  Oh, God.  I hired Todd Klein.  I hired many of the people that worked there.  I hired them as kids.  And now they're senior citizens.  (Chuckle.)  Unrecognizable.   

Prof:  Todd has established quite a reputation as a letterer. 

JA:  He's a great letterer.  So was Ben Oda. 

Prof:  Frank Springer told me some great stories about Ben. 

JA:  I worked with Frank Springer on a project.  It was a special book that he did, but I can't think of the name.  You might call Frank and find out. 

Note:  I did just that and Frank responded thusly: 

Frank Springer: Jack Adler - one of the greats in this business - did the color separations on "The Adventures of Phoebe Zeit-Geist" which I illustrated as you know, and perhaps other jobs I worked on at the National Lampoon.

FS: Back in *04 at the San Diego Comicon, I found myself on a panel with Jack.  I was so delighted to see him - and frankly to know he was still around!  Warm greetings all around!

FS: I don*t know the color process today, but back then no one did it better than Jack Adler

Prof:  Did you pal around with anyone from the office. 

JA:  Not really.  I spent my time at work and at home.  I was married for 64 years to one woman.  She passed away in '01.  She was beautiful; she was courtly and very bright.  In fact I have a story about her.  I used to meet her at night at the subway back when you could walk the streets, and I'd take her home.  She'd call me if she was going to be late, and I'd walk out to the train and pick her up. One night she called to say she'd be late.  They were doing an audit.  Okay.  She called me the next night and same thing.  She's going to be late because of an audit.  I said, "What the hell are they doing a second audit for?"  She said they'd found some kind of an error.  I let it go at that.  I didn't know what she was doing.  She was doing Top Secret work for Franklin Roosevelt.  President Roosevelt decided that the British and the French needed help, and Congress would not give them any money.  So on his own he made a program of lend/lease, giving money to the British and the French to build their planes and their boats.  My wife handled all of that.  In her job she was an executive at the Federal Reserve Bank.  A brilliant, brilliant woman.  And she never said a word to me about it.  She had a phone under her desk, and she was told that when you were talking into that phone, don't smile or anything, and she was talking to top brass in France and England.  I didn't know anything until one day a note came from the Queen of England with a little pin thanking her for her work.  

Prof:  So she had a big part in history. 

JA:  Absolutely.  And she never told me a word about what she was doing.  When I would go up to visit her, they would send a guard with me, even if I wanted to go to the john, and I couldn't understand why they sent a guard with me.  She was working on that project and never indicated anything to me.  By the way, does the name Ray Perry mean anything to you? 

Prof:  I don't think so. 

JA:  He did the drawings for Story Pages.  Ray Perry worked until he was 93 years old.  He was still working.  He played the cello.  He played it badly, but he played it.  And we swapped; I did a photograph of him and he did a watercolor sketch of me that is so good I hate it, because he was able to catch the look in your eyes, and I was bored!  Anyway, at 93 he had surgery and when I met him he said, "Goddamn doctors!  They screwed me up and I can't have sex any more." 

Prof:  (Laughter.) 

JA:  Remember, he's 93.  I believe he lived on 34th street in Manhattan.  It was a major thoroughfare.  The building that he was in was one window wide.  You know, these narrow buildings in the city.  One right next to the other.  On the day he died, his building collapsed to the ground!  And on the building right next to it you could see the outline of his green painted room.  Remember he had a cello and he had called me and said, "Jack, I want you to have my cello."  I said, "Are you crazy, Ray?  Why?"  He said, "Because my wife is a bitch, and if I die, she's going to sell that cello.  And I want that cello to go to a student, and I know you'll honor my wishes."  I said on those grounds I'd take it.  I took his cello, and I put it in my basement.  The day he died, as I said, the building came down to the ground.  The next day he was cremated and I attended the ceremony, and when I came home, my wife said, "Something's wrong.  You don't look right."  I said, "No, I had a terrible experience."  She said, "So did I."  "What do you mean?"  She said, "I can't tell you.  Go down into the basement and take a look."  I went down and there was the cello, totally unsprung.  Every glued joint was unsprung.  Did that curl your hair? 

Prof:  It sure did.  That's simply astounding.  I'm reminded of Creig Flessel, working right up to his passing at 96 awhile back.  He told me all he ever wanted to do was to draw. 

JA:  That's what I did when I was a kid.  When I was 6 years old and had started school, the teacher asked me to bring my mother in.  I thought I was in trouble.  When she came in and sat down, the teacher said, "Did you know that at the age of 6 your son is an artist?"  It came from the other side, and she didn't know what the hell it was.  She had no concept of it, and that was it.  I was an artist at 6 and I have some of the drawings that I did and the sculptures that I did in soap.   

Prof:  Your life's calling.  You found what you loved and you stuck with it.   

JA:  Absolutely.         

One final note:  Jack mentioned that when Sol Harrison became publisher at DC he congratulated him and immediately suggested he hire Paul Levitz, who of course ultimately succeeded Sol.  I shared the anecdote with Paul and he responded with the following: 

Paul Levitz: I enjoyed working with and learning from Jack for many years.  He taught a generation of us DC folks how to think in color, and set a high standard for to do production work back when it was a very personal craft. 

PL: At the time Jack mentions, I*d been laid off the formal payroll and remained on the DC staff working directly for (and paid personally by) Joe Orlando and Gerry Conway.  Jack was a good advocate, and a good friend...even teaching me how to wire my first stereo.

As you can see, Jack cut a very broad swath during his career and earned the love and respect of many of his peers and I'm more than grateful for so many who shared their thoughts about this fine gentleman who did so much behind the scenes to help bring us some of the excellent reading that enthusiasts of the genre have enjoyed for decades.

Thanks as always for making the Silver Lantern your destination.  We try very hard to be a good source of entertainment and education.  Let us know how we're doing by sending an e-mail to:  professor_the@hotmail.com

As always, we'll be back in about two weeks with an update to this ongoing feature.

Until then…

Long live the Silver Age!



© 2000-2009 by B.D.S.

Interview copy edited by Jack Adler


This feature was created on 05/01/00 and is maintained by

B.D.S.

 





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