From Wikipedia: Tree Of Danger - part of a clump of trees which had been located about half way into No Man's Land near Beaumont-Hamel, France, and had originally been used as a landmark by a Newfoundland Regiment trench raiding party in the days before the Battle of the Somme. British and German artillery bombardments eventually stripped the tree of leaves and left nothing more than a shattered tree trunk. During the Newfoundland Regiment's infantry assault, the tree was once again used as a landmark, where the troops were ordered to gather. The tree was however a highly visible landmark for the German artillery and the site proved to be a location where the German shrapnel was particularly deadly. As a result the regiment suffered a large concentration of casualties around the tree. A replica representation of the twisted tree now stands at the spot. For their efforts on the first day of the battle, the First Newfoundland Regiment was given the name The Royal Newfoundland Regiment by George V on 28 November 1917. Because of the slaughter, the first day of the Battle of the Somme is still commemorated in Newfoundland, remembering the Best of the Best at 11 am on the Sunday nearest to 1 July.
Sir Isaac Brock (KB) [1769-1812) - British Army officer and administrator born at St Peter Port on the Channel Island of Guernsey. Brock was assigned to Canada in 1802. Despite facing desertions and near-mutinies, he commanded his regiment in Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) successfully for many years. He was promoted to major general, and became responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, Brock began to ready the army and militia for what was to come. When the War of 1812 broke out, the populace was prepared, and quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit defeated American invasion efforts. Brock's actions, particularly his success at Detroit, earned him a knighthood, membership in the Order of the Bath, accolades and the sobriquet Hero of Upper Canada. His name is often linked with that of the Native American leader Tecumseh, although the two men collaborated in person only for a few days. Brock died at the Battle of Queenston Heights, which was the first major battle in the War of 1812 and resulted in a British victory. It took place on 13 October 1812, near Queenston, in the present-day province of Ontario. It was fought between United States regulars and New York militia forces led by Major General Stephen Van Rensselaer, and British forces, Canadian militia and Mohawks led by Major General Isaac Brock, and Major General Roger Sheaffe, who took command when Brock was killed. The battle was fought as the result of an American attempt to establish a foothold on the Canadian side of the Niagara River before campaigning ended with the onset of winter. This decisive battle was the result of a poorly managed American campaign, and may be most historically significant for the loss of the British commander, Brock. Despite their numerical advantage and the wide dispersal of British forces against an invasion attempt, the Americans who were stationed in Lewiston, New York, were unable to get the bulk of their invasion force across the Niagara River due to the work of British artillery and reluctance on the part of the undertrained and inexperienced American militia. As a result, British reinforcements were able to arrive and force those Americans on the Canadian side to surrender.
John McCrae, Lieutenant Colonel [1872-1918] - Canadian poet, physician, author, artist and soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the Second Battle of Ypres, in Belgium. He is best known for writing the famous war memorial poem In Flanders Fields.
Menin Gate Memorial To The Missing - war memorial in Ypres, Belgium dedicated to the British and Commonwealth soldiers who were killed in the Ypres Salient of World War I and whose graves are unknown. The memorial is located at the eastern exit of the town and marks the starting point for one of the main roads out of the town that led Allied soldiers to the front line. Designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield and built by the British government, the Menin Gate Memorial was unveiled on 24 July 1927. Its large Hall of Memory contains names on stone panels of 54,896 Commonwealth soldiers who died in the Salient but whose bodies have never been identified or found. On completion of the memorial, it was discovered to be too small to contain all the names as originally planned. An arbitrary cut-off point of 15 August 1917 was chosen and the names of 34,984 UK missing after this date were inscribed on the Tyne Cot Memorial to the Missing instead. The Menin Gate Memorial does not list the names of the missing of New Zealand and Newfoundland soldiers, who are instead honoured on separate memorials.
Passchendaele or Passendale - rural Belgian village in the Zonnebeke municipality of West Flanders province. The town is close to the town of Ypres, and is commonly known as a battlefield and the name of a campaign during World War I, the Battle of Passchendaele - a nearby ridge where the third battle of Ypres, a British offensive battle against the Germans was fought August through November, 1917. After 16 weeks of bitter fighting in appalling conditions of rain, mud and slime, about one-sixth of the initial objective had been gained at a cost of nearly 400,000 British casualties (17,000 officers), leveling the entire town. Nearly 400,000 German soldiers gave their lives defending it.
Vimy - farming town in northern France, situated on the crest of Vimy Ridge, a prominent feature overlooking the Artois region. The ridge was the scene of fierce fighting in the First World War. Seized by the Germans in 1914, it was the subject of a French assault in 1915. In 1917 the Battle of Vimy Ridge took place southeast of Vimy and was an important battle of the First World War for Canadian military history. The town was practically destroyed during the fighting in the area. Since its unveiling by King Edward Vlll in 1936, the largest of Canada's war monuments, the Canadian National Vimy Memorial, has stood on the highest point of Vimy Ridge.
From the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Monchy-le-Preux is a village in the department of the Pas-de-Calais on the north side of the main road (D33) from Arras to Cambrai. Monchy British Cemetery is nearly two kilometres west of the village down a one kilometre track. Monchy village, a relatively high and commanding position, was captured by Commonwealth forces on 11 April 1917. The cemetery was begun at once and continued in use as a front-line cemetery until the German offensive of March 1918, when it fell into their hands. It was recaptured by the Canadian Corps on 26 August and used again for a month. The graves are very closely identified with the divisions which fought on this front. There are now 581 Commonwealth servicemen of the First World War buried or commemorated in this cemetery. 58 of the burials are unidentified but there are special memorials to a number of casualties known to be buried among them. The cemetery was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens.